Amazon Route 53

Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost-effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating human readable names, such as www.example.com, into the numeric IP addresses. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well. Amazon Route 53 effectively connects user requests to infrastructure running in AWS such as EC2 instances, Elastic Load Balancing load balancers, or Amazon S3 buckets, and can also be used to route users to infrastructure outside of AWS. Users can use Amazon Route 53 to configure DNS health checks to route traffic to healthy endpoints or to independently monitor the health of application and its endpoints.

Amazon Route 53 traffic flow manage traffic globally through a variety of routing types, including latency-based routing, Geo DNS, and weighted round robin. All of which can be combined with DNS Failover in order to enable a variety of low-latency, fault-tolerant architectures. Using Amazon Route 53 traffic flow’s simple visual editor, users can easily manage how the end users are routed to application’s endpoints, whether in a single AWS Region or distributed around the globe. Amazon Route 53 also offers Domain Name Registration, where users can purchase and manage domain names such as example.com and Amazon Route 53 will automatically configure DNS settings for their domains.

  • Domain registration: Amazon Route 53 helps allows users register domain names such as example.com. 
  • Domain Name System (DNS) service:  Amazon Route 53 translates friendly domains names like www.example.com into IP addresses like 192.0.2.1. Route 53 responds to DNS queries using a global network of authoritative DNS servers, which reduces latency.
  • Health checking: Amazon Route 53 sends automated requests over the internet to users application to verify that it’s reachable, available, and functional. 
  • Resolver: Amazon Route 53 Resolver enables users forward DNS queries from a VPC that was created using Amazon VPC to DNS resolvers in users network, and from their network to resolvers in the VPC.
Amazon Route 53

Amazon Route 53 Benefits

Amazon Route 53 is built using AWS’s highly available and reliable infrastructure. The distributed nature of our DNS servers helps ensure a consistent ability to route to the end users to developers application. Features such as Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow help users improve reliability with easy configuration of failover to re-route end users to an alternate location if developers primary application endpoint becomes unavailable. Amazon Route 53 is designed to provide the level of dependability required by important applications.

Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow routes traffic based on multiple criteria, such as endpoint health, geographic location, and latency. Users can configure multiple traffic policies and decide which policies are active at any given time. Users can create and edit traffic policies using the simple visual editor in the Route 53 console, AWS SDKs, or the Route 53 API. Traffic Flow’s versioning feature maintains a history of changes to traffic policies, so that it can easily roll back to a previous version using the console or API.

Using a global anycast network of DNS servers around the world, Amazon Route 53 is designed to automatically route end users to the optimal location depending on network conditions. As a result, the service offers low query latency for end users, as well as low update latency for the DNS record management needs. Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow enables users further improve customers’ experience by running application in multiple locations around the world and using traffic policies to ensure end users are routed to the closest healthy endpoint for the application.

With self-service sign-up, Amazon Route 53 can start to answer your DNS queries within minutes. Users can configure your DNS settings with the AWS Management Console or easy-to-use API. Users can also programmatically integrate the Amazon Route 53 API into users overall web application. By integrating Amazon Route 53 with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM), users can grant unique credentials and manage permissions for every user within developers AWS account and specify who has access to which parts of the Amazon Route 53 service.

Amazon Route 53 Features

Health checking:- Amazon Route 53 enables devlopers to configure DNS health checks to route traffic to healthy endpoints or to independently monitor the health of their application and its endpoints. It sends automated requests to the application to verify that it’s reachable, available and functional.

  • Amazon Route 53 automatically sends the website visitors to other locations to avoid site outages.
  • Developers can use the visual editor to quickly find resources that are needed to update and apply the updates to one or more DNS names.
  • It routes end users to the best endpoint for the application based on geo-proximity, latency, health, and other considerations. Learn more

Domain Name Service (DNS):- Amazon Route 53 translates names to IP addresses using a global network of authoritative DNS servers. Amazon Route 53 users can search and register for the domains among the available ones. Users can also transfer the existing domain to manage by Amazon Route 53.

  • Amazon Route 53 offers a domain name registration service for its users, where they can search, register, and buy for the domains names. They can also transfer the existing domain to manage by Amazon Route 53.
  • Amazon Route 53 will be automatically configured the DNS service for the new registered domain name, and a hosted zone will also be created for that specific domain name.

Geographical DNS:- Amazon Route 53’s Geo DNS allows users to balance load by directing requests to specific endpoints based on the geographic location from which the request originates and enables them to customize localized content, including presenting detail pages in the right language or restricting distribution of content to only the markets you have licensed.

  • Geo DNS provides three levels of geographic granularity: continent, country, and state.
  • Geo DNS provides a global record which is served in cases where an end user’s location doesn’t match any of the specific Geo DNS records developers have created. 
  • Using Geolocation routing policy, developers can route traffic based on the location of end users.
    • Geolocation routing lets them choose the resources that serve their traffic based on the geographic location of their end users, meaning the location that DNS queries originate from.
  • Developers can use Geoproximity routing policy, when they want to route traffic based on the location of the resources and, optionally, shift traffic from resources in one location to resources in another.

DNS Failover:- DNS Failover help detect an outage of users website and redirect their end users to alternate locations where their application is operating properly. 

  • Using Failover routing policy, users can configure active-passive failover.
    • Failover routing allow users route traffic to a resource when the resource is healthy or to a different resource when the first resource is unhealthy.
    • The primary and secondary records can route traffic to anything from an Amazon S3 bucket that is configured as a website to a complex tree of records.
  • Amazon Route 53 health-checking agents will monitor each location (or “endpoint”) of the application to determine its availability.
    • In the event an endpoint fails, Amazon Route 53 will route traffic away from the failed endpoint and to other, healthy endpoints. Learn more

Traffic flow:- Amazon Route 53 traffic flow provides a visual editor that helps users create complex trees and save the configuration as a traffic policy. Once that is done they can associate the traffic policy with one or more domain names (like example.com) or subdomain names (such as www.example.com) in the same hosted zone or in multiple hosted zones.

  • Using Amazon Route 53 Traffic Flow’s simple visual editor, developers can easily manage how their end-users are routed to their application’s endpoints—whether in a single AWS region or distributed around the globe.
  • Users can use Multivalue answer routing policy if they want Amazon Route 53 to respond to DNS queries with up to eight healthy records selected at random.
    • Multivalue answer routing lets users configure Route 53 to return multiple values, such as IP addresses for their web servers, in response to DNS queries.
  • Weighted routing policy:– Weighted routing allows users associate multiple resources with a single domain name  or subdomain name  and choose how much traffic is routed to each resource. This can be useful for a variety of purposes, including load balancing and testing new versions of software.
  • Geoproximity routing policy:– Users can use this policy when they want to route traffic based on the location of their  resources and, optionally, shift traffic from resources in one location to resources in another.

Resolver:- When users create a VPC, they automatically get DNS resolution within the VPC from Route 53 Resolver. This Resolver answers DNS queries for VPC domain names for EC2 instances or ELB load balancers. It also performs recursive lookup against public name servers for all other domain names.

  • DNS resolvers on users network forward DNS queries to Resolver in a specified VPC. Which enables users DNS resolvers to easily resolve domain names for AWS resources such as EC2 instances.
  • Users can create Resolver rules that specify the domain names for the DNS queries that they want to forward such as example.com, and the IP addresses of the DNS resolvers on their network that they want to forward the queries to.
  • Users can create conditional forwarding rules and DNS endpoints to resolve custom names mastered in Amazon Route 53 private hosted zones or in their on-premises DNS servers. There are two types of resolver endpoints, inbound and outbound:

    • An inbound resolver endpoint forwards DNS queries to the DNS service for a VPC from users network or another VPC.
    • An outbound resolver endpoint forwards DNS queries from the DNS service for a VPC to users network or another VPC.

Amazon Route 53 concepts

Domain registration concepts

Domain name: The name, such as example.com, that a user types in the address bar of a web browser to access a website or a web application. To make website or web application available on the internet, you start by registering a domain name

Domain registrar: A company that is accredited by ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) to process domain registrations for specific top-level domains (TLDs). For example, Amazon Registrar, Inc. is a domain registrar for .com, .net, and .org domains. Our registrar associate, Gandi, is a domain registrar for hundreds of TLDs, such as .apartments, .boutique, and .camera. 

Domain registry: A company that owns the right to sell domains that have a specific top-level domain. For example, VeriSign is the registry that owns the right to sell domains that have a .com TLD. A domain registry defines the rules for registering a domain, such as residency requirements for a geographic TLD. A domain registry also maintains the authoritative database for all of the domain names that have the same TLD. The registry’s database contains information such as contact information and the name servers for each domain.

Domain reseller: A company that sells domain names for registrars such as Amazon Registrar. Amazon Route 53 is a domain reseller for Amazon Registrar and for our registrar associate, Gandi.

Top-level domain (TLD): The last part of a domain name, such as .com, .org, or .ninja. There are two types of top-level domains:

Generic top-level domains: These TLDs typically give users an idea of what they’ll find on the website. For example, domain names that have a TLD of .bike often are associated with websites for motorcycle or bicycle businesses or organizations. With a few exceptions, users can use any generic TLD you want, so a bicycle club could use the .hockey TLD for their domain name.
Geographic top-level domains: These TLDs are associated with geographic areas such as countries or cities. Some registries for geographic TLDs have residency requirements, while others, such as .io (British Indian Ocean Territory), allow or even encourage use as a generic TLD.
Domain Name System (DNS) concepts

Alias record: A type of record that users can create with Amazon Route 53 to route traffic to AWS resources such as Amazon CloudFront distributions and Amazon S3 buckets. 

Authoritative name server: A name server that has definitive information about one part of the Domain Name System (DNS) and that responds to requests from a DNS resolver by returning the applicable information. When a .com authoritative name server receives a request from a DNS resolver for example.com, it responds with the names of the name servers for the DNS service for the example.com domain.

DNS query: Usually a request that is submitted by a device, such as a computer or a smart phone, to the Domain Name System (DNS) for a resource that is associated with a domain name. The most common example of a DNS query is when a user opens a browser and types the domain name in the address bar. The response to a DNS query typically is the IP address that is associated with a resource such as a web server. 

DNS resolver: A DNS server, often managed by an internet service provider (ISP), that acts as an intermediary between user requests and DNS name servers. The resolver communicates with DNS name servers to get the IP address for the corresponding resource, such as a web server. A DNS resolver is also known as a recursive name server because it sends requests to a sequence of authoritative DNS name servers until it gets the response (typically an IP address) that it returns to a user’s device, for example, a web browser on a laptop computer.

Domain Name System (DNS): A worldwide network of servers that help computers, smart phones, tablets, and other IP-enabled devices to communicate with one another. The Domain Name System translates easily understood names such as example.com into the numbers, known as IP addresses, that allow computers to find each other on the internet.

Hosted zone: A container for records, which include information about how users want to route traffic for a domain. A hosted zone has the same name as the corresponding domain.

IP address: A number that is assigned to a device on the internet—such as a laptop, a smart phone, or a web server—that allows the device to communicate with other devices on the internet. IP addresses are either Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) format, or Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) format, 

Name servers: Servers in the Domain Name System (DNS) that help to translate domain names into the IP addresses that computers use to communicate with one another. Name servers are either recursive name servers (also known as DNS resolver) or authoritative name servers.

Private DNS: A local version of the Domain Name System (DNS) that lets users route traffic for a domain and its subdomains to Amazon EC2 instances within one or more Amazon virtual private clouds (VPCs)

Record (DNS record):An object in a hosted zone that use to define how users want to route traffic for the domain or a subdomain. 

Reusable delegation set: A set of four authoritative name servers that users can use with more than one hosted zone. By default, Amazon Route 53 assigns a random selection of name servers to each new hosted zone. To make it easier to migrate DNS service to Amazon Route 53 for a large number of domains, users can create a reusable delegation set and then associate the reusable delegation set with new hosted zones. 

Routing policy: A setting for records that determines how Amazon Route 53 responds to DNS queries. Amazon Route 53 supports the following routing policies:

  • Simple routing policy – Use to route internet traffic to a single resource that performs a given function for domain.
  • Failover routing policy – Use when users want to configure active-passive failover.
  • Geolocation routing policy – Use when users want to route internet traffic to the resources based on the location of end users.
  • Geoproximity routing policy – Use when users want to route traffic based on the location of your resources and, optionally, shift traffic from resources in one location to resources in another.
  • Latency routing policy – Use when users have resources in multiple locations and they want to route traffic to the resource that provides the best latency.
  • Multivalue answer routing policy – Use when users want Amazon Route 53 to respond to DNS queries with up to eight healthy records selected at random.
  • Weighted routing policy – Use to route traffic to multiple resources in proportions that users specify.

Subdomain: A domain name that has one or more labels prepended to the registered domain name. 

To route traffic for a subdomain, create a record that has the name that you want, such as www.example.com, and specify the applicable values, such as the IP address of a web server.

Domain Name Services 

Amazon Route 53

A domain name is the human-friendly name that are used to associat with an Internet resource. Domain locations in a DNS can be relative to one another and, as such, can be somewhat ambiguous. A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN), also referred to as an absolute domain name, specifies a domain’s location in relation to the absolute root of the DNS. This means that the FQDN specifies each parent domain including the TLD. A proper FQDN ends with a dot, indicating the root of the DNS hierarchy. An IP address is a network addressable location. Each IP address must be unique within its network. For public websites, this network is the entire Internet. There are two types of IP Addresses IPv4 addresses and IPv6 addresses:

  • IPv4 addresses, the most common form of addresses, consist of four sets of numbers separated by a dot(111.222.333.444), with each set having up to three digits.
  • IPv6 addresses has an address space of 128 bits, which is way larger than IPv4 addresses. To be exact 340 Undecillion (34 x 10^40) IP addresses can be created using IPv6 address.

#01

DNS Host Name

 
 

Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard by which names used on the Internet are resolved to their corresponding IP addresses. In other words Domain names are easily recognizable names for numerically addressed Internet resources.

  • domain is a general DNS concept and a hosted zone is an Amazon Route 53 concept. A hosted zone is analogous to a traditional DNS zone file; it represents a collection of records that can be managed together, belonging to a single parent domain name such as www.amazon.com, and www.aws.amazon.com, but not a record named www.amazon.ca. All resource record sets within a hosted zone must have the hosted zone’s domain name as a suffix.
  • A DNS hostname is a name that uniquely and absolutely names a computer; it’s composed of a host name and a domain name. DNS servers resolve DNS hostnames to their corresponding IP addresses.
  • Host refers to the domain owner, who can define individual domain name, which refer to separate computers or services accessible through a domain.(amazon.com, www.amazon.com).
  • Since DNS uses a hierarchical name structure, and different levels in the hierarchy are each separated with a dot (.).
    • Which allows a large domain to be partitioned or extended into multiple subdomains. TLDs can have many subdomains under them.
    • Host name defines a computer or resource.
    • A subdomain extends the parent domain. Subdomains are a method of subdividing the domain itself.

#02

Domain Name

 
 

 

A domain name is the information that users enter into a web browser (the human-friendly version of an IP address) in order to reach a specific website. DNS is a globally service that translates human readable names like www.example.com into the numeric IP addresses like 192.0.2.1 that computers use to connect to each other. 

A DNS system is much like a hierarchy, that manages the mapping between names and numbers. DNS servers translate requests for names into IP addresses, controlling which server an end user will reach when they type a domain name into their web browser. These requests are called queries.

  • Top-Level Domain (TLD):–  A Top-Level Domain (TLD) is the most General part of the domain. The TLD is the farthest portion to the right (as separated by a dot). Common TLDs are .com, .net, .org, .gov, .edu, and .io. In the most basic terms, a top level domain (TLD) – also called a domain name extension – is the letter combination that concludes a web address.
    • TLDs are at the top of the hierarchy in terms of domain names. Certain parties are given management control over TLDs by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
    • These domains are registered with the Network Information Center (InterNIC), a service of ICANN, which enforces the uniqueness of domain names across the Internet. Each domain name becomes registered in a central database, known as the WhoIS database.
  • Second-Level Domain (SLD):– In simple terms, a second level domain is the name just to the left of the domain extension, the .com or .net. In the above case Here, the word “amazon” – directly to the left of the final dot – is the second level domain.
    • In many ways, clients SLD is the identity of their website. Thus, It should correspond to the services it offers.  That distinguishes the website from others, and therefore, is worthy of careful forethought.
    • The SLD is the first point of contact internet users have with clients website. It’s the most memorable part of a URL and therefore the most important.

DNS servers translate requests for names into IP addresses, controlling which server an end user will reach when they type a domain name into their web browser. It is also called Name Servers.

  • A DNS server is a computer designated to translate domain names into IP addresses. These servers do most of the work in the DNS. 
  • A DNS servers can be authoritative, meaning that they give answers to queries about domains under their control
  • Each server may redirect requests to other name servers or delegate responsibility for the subset of subdomains for which they are responsible.
  • zone file is a simple text file that contains the mappings between domain names and IP addresses. This is how a DNS server finally identifies which IP address should be contacted when a user requests a certain domain name. 
  • Zone files reside in name servers and generally define the resources available under a specific domain, or the place where one can go to get that information.
  • The root zone file is a small (about 2 MB) data set, whose publication is the primary purpose of root name servers.
  • The root zone file is at the apex of a hierarchical distributed database of the DNS.

All DNS servers fall into one of four categories: Authoritative nameservers, Recursive resolvers, root name servers, TLD nameservers, and. In a typical DNS lookup (when there is no caching in play), these four DNS servers work together in harmony to complete the task of delivering the IP address for a specified domain to the client.

#03

DNS Servers

 
 

#04

Hosted Zones

 
 

 

A hosted zone is a container for records, and records contain information about how AWS clients want to route traffic for a specific domain, such as amazon.com, and its subdomains (either acme.amazone or aws.amazon.com). A hosted zone and the corresponding domain have the same name. There are two types of hosted zones:

  • A public hosted zone is a container that holds information about how AWS clients want to route traffic on the internet for a specific domain, such as example.com, and its subdomains (acme.example.com, zenith.example.com. Customers can get a public hosted zone in one of two ways:
    • Where they register a domain with Amazon Route 53, we create a hosted zone for them automatically.
    • When they transfer DNS service for an existing domain to Amazon Route 53, they start by creating a hosted zone for the domain.
  • A private hosted zone is a container that holds information about how the customers want Amazon Route 53 to respond to DNS queries for a domain and its subdomains within one or more VPCs that you create with the Amazon VPC service.
  • A zone file is a simple text file that contains the mappings between domain names and IP addresses. This is how a DNS server identifies which IP address should be contacted when a user requests a certain domain name.
    • Zone files reside in name servers and generally define the resources available under a specific domain, or the place where one can go to get that information.

Types Of DNS Services

Authoritative DNS:– An authoritative DNS service provides an update mechanism that developers use to manage their public DNS names. It then answers DNS queries, translating domain names into IP addresses so computers can communicate with each other. Simply, an authoritative DNS nameservers are responsible providing answers to recursive DNS nameservers with the IP “mapping” of the intended website.

  • Authoritative DNS has the final authority over a domain and is responsible for providing answers to recursive DNS servers with the IP address information. Amazon Route 53 is an authoritative DNS system.

A root name server is a name server for the root zone of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. It directly answers requests for records in the root zone and answers other requests by returning a list of the authoritative name servers for the appropriate top-level domain (TLD)

TLD name servers:–  A TLD name server maintains information for all the domain names that share a common domain extension, such as .com, .net, or whatever comes after the last dot in a url.

  • A TLD is the highest level of domain names in the root zone of the DNS of the Internet. For all domains in lower levels, it is the last part of the domain name, that is, the label that follows the last dot of a fully qualified domain name.
    • A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is referred also as an absolute domain name specifies a domain’s location in relation to the absolute root of the DNS. 
    • This means that the FQDN specifies each parent domain including the TLD. A proper FQDN ends with a dot, indicating the root of the DNS hierarchy.

In a typical DNS lookup (when there is no caching in play), these four DNS servers work together in harmony to complete the task of delivering the IP address for a specified domain to the client (the client is usually a stub resolver – a simple resolver built into an operating system).

A root name server:– A root name server (also called a DNS root server) is responsible answering client requests in the domain name system’s root zone (the root zone marks the largest layer in the DNS’ name space). 

  • The root name servers are a critical part of the Internet infrastructure because they are the first step in translating (resolving) human readable host names into IP addresses that are used in communication between Internet hosts.
  • The root name server doesn’t execute the name resolution itself and instead it informs the requesting client about which other name server it can obtain further information about the desired IP address.
  • Root name servers know the IP addresses of the authoritative nameservers that handle DNS queries for the Top Level Domains (TLD) like “.com”, “.edu” or “.gov”.
  • A root server accepts a recursive resolver’s query and the root name server responds by directing the recursive resolver to a TLD nameserver, based on the extension of that domain root name servers are on.
  • It is overseen by a nonprofit called the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).

Recursive DNS(DNS recursor):– Recursive DNS nameservers are responsible for providing the proper IP address of the intended domain name to the requesting host. In this case customers typically do not make queries directly to authoritative DNS services. Instead, they generally connect to another type of DNS service known a resolver, or a recursive DNS service. A recursive DNS service doesn’t own any DNS records, it acts as an intermediary, that can get the DNS information on customers behalf. 

  • A recursive resolver is the first stop in a DNS query. The recursive resolver acts as a middleman between a client and a DNS nameserver. After receiving a DNS query from a web client, a recursive resolver will either respond with cached data, or send a request to a root name server, followed by another request to a TLD nameserver, and and then one last request to an authoritative nameserver.
  • If a recursive DNS has the DNS reference cached, or stored for a period of time, then it answers the DNS query by providing the source or IP information. If not, it passes the query to one or more authoritative DNS servers to find the information

Integration with other services

 

Users can integrate Amazon Route 53 with other AWS services to log requests that are sent to the Route 53 API, monitor the status of your resources, and assign tags to your resources. In addition, users can use Route 53 to route internet traffic to the AWS resources.

  • Logging, monitoring, and tagging
  • Routing traffic to other AWS resources

Logging, monitoring, and tagging

 

AWS CloudTrail: Amazon Route 53 is integrated with AWS CloudTrail, a service that captures information about every request that is sent to the Amazon Route 53 API by your AWS account. Users can use information in the CloudTrail log files to determine which requests were made to Amazon Route 53, the source IP address from which each request was made, who made the request, when it was made, and so on.

Amazon CloudWatch: Users can use Amazon CloudWatch to monitor the status of healthy or unhealthy of the Amazon Route 53 health checks. Health checks monitor the health and performance of web applications, web servers, and other resources. At regular intervals that was specified, Amazon Route 53 submits automated requests over the internet to the application, server, or other resource to verify that it’s reachable, available, and functional.

Tag Editor: A tag is a label that is assign to an AWS resource, including Amazon Route 53 domains, hosted zones, and health checks. Each tag consists of a key and a value, both of which users define. For instance, the user might assign a tag to a domain registration that has the key “Customer” and the value “Example Corp.” Users can use tags for a variety of purposes; one common use is to categorize and track the AWS costs.

Routing traffic to other AWS resources

 

Amazon API Gateway: Amazon API Gateway enables users to create, publish, maintain, monitor, and secure APIs at any scale. Users can create APIs that access AWS or other web services, as well as data stored in the AWS Cloud. In addition Amazon Route 53 can be used to route traffic to an API Gateway API

Amazon CloudFront: To speed up delivery of web content, users can use Amazon CloudFront for the AWS content delivery network (CDN). By using a global network of edge locations, CloudFront can deliver the entire website including dynamic, static, streaming, and interactive content. CloudFront routes requests for users content to the edge location that gives end users the lowest latency.

Amazon EC2: Amazon EC2 provides scalable computing capacity in the AWS Cloud. Users can launch an EC2 virtual computing environment (an instance) using a preconfigured template (an Amazon Machine Image, or AMI). When launching an EC2 instance, EC2 automatically installs the operating system (Linux or Microsoft Windows) and additional software included in the AMI, such as web server or database software.

AWS Elastic Beanstalk: When using AWS Elastic Beanstalk to deploy and manage applications in the AWS Cloud, users can use Amazon Route 53 to route DNS traffic of the domain, such as example.com, to an Elastic Beanstalk environment

Elastic Load Balancing: When hosting a website on multiple Amazon EC2 instances, users can distribute traffic to their website across the instances by using an Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) load balancer. The ELB service automatically scales the load balancer as traffic to the website changes over time. The load balancer also can monitor the health of its registered instances and route domain traffic only to healthy instances.

Users can use Route 53 to route traffic of the domain to Classic, Application, or Network Load Balancer. 

Amazon Lightsail: Amazon Lightsail provides compute, storage, and networking capacity and capabilities to deploy and manage websites, web applications, and databases in the cloud for a low, predictable monthly price.

Amazon RDS: When using an Amazon RDS database instance for data storage for the web application, the domain name that is assigned to DB instance is a long, partially random, alphanumeric string, such as myexampledb.a1b2c3d4wxyz.us-west-2.rds.amazonaws.com.

  • When using a domain name that’s easier to remember, users can use Route 53 to associate the domain name, such as productdata.example.com, with the domain name of their DB instance. 

Amazon S3: Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) provides secure, durable, highly scalable cloud storage. Users can configure an S3 bucket to host a static website that can include web pages and client-side scripts. (S3 doesn’t support server-side scripting.)

 

Amazon VPC: An interface endpoint allows users connect to services that are powered by AWS PrivateLink. These services include some AWS services, services hosted by other AWS customers and partners in their own Amazon VPCs (referred to as endpoint services), and supported AWS Marketplace partner services.

Users can use Route 53 to route traffic to an interface endpoint

Amazon WorkMail: When using Amazon WorkMail for business email and Route 53 as DNS service, users can use Route 53 to route traffic to their Amazon WorkMail email domain

Monitoring Route 53 

Amazon Route 53

Monitoring is an important part of maintaining the reliability, availability, and performance. AWS solutions. It is a good practice to collect monitoring data from all of the parts of the AWS solution so that they can more easily debug a multi-point failure if one occurs. By creating a monitoring plan that includes the following information:

  • The purpose of monitoring. 
  • The resources that will be used to monitor.
  • The number of times it was monitored.
  • The tools that was to monitor.
  • The entity who perform the monitoring.
  • The entity who should be notified when something goes wrong.

Monitoring Domain Registrations: Amazon Route 53 dashboard provides detailed information about the status of users domain registrations such as:

  • Status of new domain registrations
  • Status of domain transfers to Route 53
  • List of domains that are approaching the expiration date

Using  CloudWatch, which collect and process data into readable, near real-time metrics, AWS customers can monitor their resources by creating Amazon Route 53 health checks, public hosted zones, and the number of DNS queries that are forwarded by Route 53 Resolver endpoints. Route 53 health checks integrate with CloudWatch metrics so that the user can do the following:

  • Verify that a health check is properly configured.
  • Review the status of a health check over a specified period of time.
  • Configure CloudWatch to send an Amazon SNS alert when the status of a health check is unhealthy. Note that several minutes might elapse between the time that a health check fails and the time that the user  receive the associated SNS notification.
 

Route 53 is integrated with AWS CloudTrail, a service that provides a record of actions taken by a user, role, or an AWS service in Route 53. CloudTrail captures all API calls for Route 53 as events, including calls from the Route 53 console and from code calls to the Route 53 APIs

Logging DNS Queries: Query logs contain only the queries that DNS resolvers forward to Route 53. If a DNS resolver has already cached the response to a query, the resolver will continue to return the cached response without forwarding the query to Route 53 until the TTL for the corresponding record expires. Users can configure Amazon Route 53 to log information about the queries that Route 53 receives using the following:

  • Domain or subdomain that was requested
  • Date and time of the request
  • DNS record type (such as A or AAAA)
  • Route 53 edge location that responded to the DNS query
  • DNS response code, such as NoError or ServFail

Resolver query logging: Users can log the DNS queries that originate in Amazon Virtual Private Cloud VPCs that was specified, as well as the responses to those DNS queries. Users can also log DNS queries from on-premises resources that use an inbound Resolver endpoint, and DNS queries that use an outbound Resolver endpoint for recursive DNS resolution. Users can send the logs to one of the following AWS resources:

  • Amazon CloudWatch Logs (CloudWatch Logs) log group
  • Amazon S3 (S3) bucket
  • Kinesis Data Firehose delivery stream

To register a new domain using Amazon Route 53
  1. Sign in to the AWS Management Console at https://console.aws.amazon.com/route53/
  2. Choose the Route 53 console
  3. Choose Register Domain
  4. Enter the domain name that you want to register, and choose Check to find out whether the domain name is available.
  5. If the domain is available, choose Add to cart. The domain name appears in your shopping cart.
  6. On the Contact Details for Your n Domains page, enter contact information for the domain registrant, administrator, and technical contacts, and Choose Continue.
  7. Wait until you receive email verification Amazon Registrar.
  8. Check your email to see whether you have got the verification.
  9. Once you receive the email from Amazon Registrar choose the Refresh Status box.
  10. Review the information that you entered, read the terms of service, and Select the Check box to confirm that you’ve read the terms of service and select Complete Order.
  11. Finally, Order submitted box will appear

Amazon Route 53 is a highly available and scalable cloud Domain Name System (DNS) web service. It is designed to give developers and businesses an extremely reliable and cost-effective way to route end users to Internet applications by translating human readable names, such as www.example.com, into the numeric IP addresses. Amazon Route 53 is fully compliant with IPv6 as well. Amazon Route 53 effectively connects user requests to infrastructure running in AWS such as EC2 instances, Elastic Load Balancing load balancers, or Amazon S3 buckets, and can also be used to route users to infrastructure outside of AWS. Users can use Amazon Route 53 to configure DNS health checks to route traffic to healthy endpoints or to independently monitor the health of application and its endpoints.

Amazon Route 53 traffic flow manage traffic globally through a variety of routing types, including latency-based routing, Geo DNS, and weighted round robin. All of which can be combined with DNS Failover in order to enable a variety of low-latency, fault-tolerant architectures. Using Amazon Route 53 traffic flow’s simple visual editor, users can easily manage how the end users are routed to application’s endpoints, whether in a single AWS Region or distributed around the globe. Amazon Route 53 also offers Domain Name Registration, where users can purchase and manage domain names such as example.com and Amazon Route 53 will automatically configure DNS settings for their domains.

  • Domain registration: Amazon Route 53 helps allows users register domain names such as example.com. 
  • Domain Name System (DNS) service:  Amazon Route 53 translates friendly domains names like www.example.com into IP addresses like 192.0.2.1. Route 53 responds to DNS queries using a global network of authoritative DNS servers, which reduces latency.
  • Health checking: Amazon Route 53 sends automated requests over the internet to users application to verify that it’s reachable, available, and functional. 
  • Resolver: Amazon Route 53 Resolver enables users forward DNS queries from a VPC that was created using Amazon VPC to DNS resolvers in users network, and from their network to resolvers in the VPC.